Gopher Frog Monitoring Project

By Aubrey Greene

The gopher frog is currently being considered for federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. While the gopher frog has experienced serious declines throughout the rest of its range, Florida currently represents a stronghold for the species. Consequently, the gopher frog was delisted as a state-designated Species of Special Concern in January 2017. As a part of the delisting process, a state species action plan was developed for the gopher frog. This action plan calls for the development of a statewide monitoring program for the species. Before the species was delisted, we began a pilot study to increase our understanding of species detection and wetland occupancy rates, as well as to determine the best methodology for a long-term gopher frog monitoring program.

Surveys for the gopher frog monitoring project started in Fall 2015. This project uses seasonal dipnet surveys and frogloggers (automated frog call recorders) to track the status of gopher frogs in 100 wetlands over time. Additional wetlands are also surveyed as time allows to locate new breeding wetlands and track the status of the species in additional known breeding ponds. During FY 2017-18, we surveyed 114 ponds in 22 counties on 29 public or conservation lands for gopher frogs, finding tadpoles in 72 ponds in 21 counties on 24 public lands. These surveys discovered one previously unknown gopher frog breeding pond and observed breeding for the first time in decades in some previously known ponds. Many of the “rediscovered” observations were made in the months following Hurricane Irma, which filled most of the study ponds.

An image of a sonogram of a gopher frog call.

As the data collection phase of this project comes to a close at the end of 2018, in-depth data analyses will begin. Froglogger recordings are already being analyzed using software that recognizes the specific call signature of the species. Unfortunately, this is a very long process due to the large amount of data collected over the three-year project. Dipnet and froglogger data will be analyzed to determine the annual and seasonal patterns of wetland occupancy in each region of the state, as well as the effects of different variables on species detection and wetland occupancy. We will also examine data from both methods to make recommendations about the most efficient sampling methods.