By Tim Dellinger
The Florida sandhill crane (Antigone canadensis pratensis) is one of five sandhill crane sub-species found in North America. Florida sandhills are non-migratory and range from southeastern Georgia to the Everglades. The current population estimate is around 4,600 birds and it is state-listed as Threatened in Florida.
Like other crane species, Florida sandhills need wetlands as well as uplands. Wetlands such as shallow depression marshes and lake edges are used for nesting, foraging, and roosting. Uplands with low vegetation, such as private ranchland and dry prairie, are used for foraging and loafing. Both habitat types are equally important to cranes. Unfortunately, wetlands are often drained and open uplands bulldozed to make way for roads, shopping malls, and subdivisions. Remarkably, however, some cranes are remaining in or moving to urbanized areas and living among us.
In 2017 we began a project examining how Florida sandhills are using urbanized areas. We are currently tagging adult cranes with cellular GPS transmitters in suburbs and developed areas. The transmitters collect GPS locations at 30-minute intervals and are uploaded to us daily. We are also tagging Florida sandhills in rural and conservation areas to help us better understand survivorship, productivity, and habitat use along the urban gradient.
Preliminary data show that some urban cranes solely inhabit suburban or developed areas. They use suburban yards, grassy roadsides, golf courses, and open areas around colleges and hospitals as uplands, and retention ponds or lake edge for wetlands. However, most urban cranes regularly moved between rural areas or conservation lands to suburban areas to meet their daily needs. Preliminary movement data for Florida sandhills tagged on conservation lands show that all individuals use some man-made habitat daily, either a mowed area near a road, a yard with a bird feeder, or improved pastureland. We will continue to tag cranes during 2019.