Over 14,000 water samples were processed during the Kareniabrevis bloom that began in November 2017 and ended in February 2019. Each of these samples represents a single moment in space and time, and both routine and event response sampling play a critical role in tracking blooms. Marine and estuarine environments –and blooms of K. brevis – are dynamic and can change rapidly over space and time. To help bridge gaps between sampling events, the HAB Group has been working to adapt a new passive sampling technology to monitor for brevetoxins produced by K. brevis in the Gulf of Mexico called Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking, or SPATT. SPATT uses tiny resin beads that passively adsorb free brevetoxins in the water. These beads are sealed in small mesh bags and can be deployed in various locations (on fishing piers, docks, buoy lines) for upwards to a month at a time, and once the bags are recovered, toxins can then be extracted and measured. Since this method only measures toxin exposure over time, it cannot be used to infer actual cell concentrations, like those provided on our weekly maps. Instead, scientists can infer K. brevis’ presence and general concentration at a particular location and depth during the deployment period.
SPATT bag analyses to detect toxins offshore and/or at depth is of particular
interest, since sub-surface samples are beyond the reach of remote sensing, and
most samples are taken within 0.5 m of the surface and/or in nearshore coastal
and estuarine systems. Analyses of recently deployed SPATT bags have shown
higher concentrations at depth, both when compared to concentrations at the
surface and in previous months. These types of measurements are increasingly
critical, as evidence points to bloom formation occurring at depth in the
offshore environment. Information about bloom conditions at depth is
particularly important to have for use in predictive models of bloom
development and transport to the nearshore coast, where a bloom can become a
severe red tide event.
Use of this technology in the lab and field has been very promising! In the future, the HAB Group hopes to be able to deploy SPATT bags in multiple locations spanning nearshore to offshore so that they can serve as an early warning sentinel system for K. brevis blooms. SPATT technology is currently used in other parts of the U.S. to monitor different marine and freshwater toxins, and FWRI HAB researchers also plan to determine how this method could be used to measure and track the multiple toxins produced by other HAB species in Florida waters.
Last month, 90 corals were transferred from Keys Marine Lab (KML) in Marathon, FL to their new home at Florida Aquarium’s Center for Conservation (FLAQ) in Apollo Beach–in response to the Stony Coral Tissue Loss Disease event currently affecting the Florida Reef Tract. This transfer frees up space at KML to allow for upcoming rescue collections.
Since September 2018, FWC staff have been successfully
caring for rescued corals, with more than 99% still alive and healthy.
View more images from the Coral Rescue efforts: https://bit.ly/2EcfooI
In mid-August 2017, the FWC Division of Marine
Fisheries Management’s lionfish group contacted the Fish and Wildlife Health
Staff to confirm they collected lionfish (invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish Pteroisvolitans/miles complex) with significant ulcerative skin lesions
approximately 30 miles off Pinellas County.
Ulcerated lionfish were also documented offshore Pensacola by local divers on Aug. 5. Following these initial reports, lionfish presenting with ulcers have also been reported in waters of the, East Florida Shelf, the Florida Keys, and the Bahamas as well as throughout the Caribbean Sea, including offshore of the Cayman Islands, Bonaire and Belize. FWC’s Fish and Wildlife Health group are collaborating with UF and Okaloosa County to obtain specimens and conduct necropsies to determine the etiology of the disease. In conjunction with UF, FWC have evaluated the specimens for parasitic infection as well as bacterial, fungal and viral infection.
This ongoing research is critical because the
pathogen could be non‐specific and impact other marine sport fish species.
Histological analysis has demonstrated tissues that appear to be healing. A
causative agent has not been identified, but FWC continue to receive periodic
reports of ulcerated fish and try to get specimens for analysis as they become
From the vast blackwaters of the Suwannee River to a braided creek in Pensacola to a pin-straight residential canal in the greater Miami area, our NRSA crew has been everywhere, man (cue Johnny Cash). For three months, personnel of the Freshwater Plants Research Program travelled all over Florida to sample a variety of unique ecosystems using multiple standardized sampling techniques. For shallow systems, like Pole Branch Creek in rural Calhoun County, our team of 5-7 samplers packed in all our gear and our backpack electrofishing unit and waded through the sites to complete our surveys. But for deeper and wider systems like the extensive Kissimmee River, we conducted our surveys via two boats loaded down with sampling equipment – one for our habitat crew, the other for our fish crew. On every system we recorded observations about habitat type and condition of the banks. We used specialized equipment and techniques to evaluate characteristics like slope, discharge and fish community assemblage. We also collected samples of water, algae, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish tissue. All samples and data were recorded and sent to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for analysis.
The National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA) is a nationwide survey designed by the EPA that takes place in all lower 48 states. Rivers, streams and canals all over the country have been randomly selected for sampling. The resulting data provide an unbiased representation of our nation’s flowing waterways for comparing these systems with others in their region. This is part of a major ongoing effort by the EPA called the National Aquatic Resource Surveys. The purpose of these surveys is to assess the conditions of our nation’s waterbodies and to track them over time. NRSA is just one aspect of the big picture and takes place over two consecutive summers, occurring every 5 years. This season was the first of their 2018-19 sampling event.
As our season is wrapping up, we proudly look back at all we have learned, experienced, and accomplished this summer. This project has provided us the opportunity to use new tools and techniques, such as densiometers to measure canopy coverage and stadia rods or sonar to document channel depths and substrate type along thalwegs. It has also encouraged us to connect with other FWC offices, Water Management District personnel, and local land owners or managers. With the help of their local knowledge and expertise we have successfully completed half of the selected survey sites during this first year. We look forward to continuing this work next summer as we prepare to tackle the rest of our sites which include larger river ecosystems such as the Escambia and Apalachicola Rivers.
Our NRSA Sampling Crew included: Jamie Richardson, Kyle Miller, Emily McPartlin, Amanda Christensen (volunteer), Greg Knothe, Siobhan Gorham, & Craig Mallison. A special thanks to: Travis Tuten, John Knight, Kate Harriger, Chelsea Myles-McBurney, Kayla Smith, & Jason O’Connor for their assistance.
FWRI HAB and molluscan fisheries groups are collaborating on a one-year project funded by the Tampa Bay Estuary Program to investigate if the creation of shellfish nurseries as part of restoration efforts could have the added benefit of interfering with Pyrodinium bahamense bloom development. P. bahamense is a toxic dinoflagellate that forms high biomass blooms in Old Tampa Bay, the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), and other systems in Florida each summer. These blooms can cause shellfish harvesting area closures due to presence of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins (http://myfwc.com/media/3323422/Pyrodinium-bahamense-factsheet.pdf).
As filter feeders, bivalves can clear particles from over a liter of water every hour for each gram of dry body weight when feeding optimally. Clams can have up to ~ 5 grams of tissue, so that’s a lot of algae consumption! The goal of this research project will be to investigate how well targeted bivalve molluscs can feed on toxic P. bahamense. Molluscs that consume P. bahamense become toxic and cannot be consumed by humans, but they still play a critical role in healthy estuaries. We are conducting our first set of experiments with hard clams (Mercenaria spp.), and the next focus will be eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica). If successful, these experiments may be scaled up to mesocosms once ideal species are identified.
The Coastal Wetlands research group at the Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute (FWRI) received a grant from the National Fish and Wildlife Federation (NFWF) to assess the impacts of Hurricane Irma to coastal wetland habitats of southwest Florida. Since 2014, the FWRI Coastal Wetlands group along with partner organizations, has been working in coastal marshes and mangroves across Southwest Florida, including Tampa Bay, Charlotte Harbor, Ten Thousand Islands, Biscayne Bay, and the lower Florida Keys. All pre-existing field sites were located within 50 km of Hurricane Irma’s eye path, with a few sites in the lower Florida Keys and Naples/Ten Thousand Islands region suffering direct eyewall hits. Since all locations include active field sites, a wealth of pre-storm data exists, and these locations are uniquely positioned to evaluate and quantify post-hurricane damage to standing biomass and ecosystem services across a wide geographic area.
Initial Post-Irma field assessments focused on qualitatively assessing and photographically documenting damage (e.g. defoliation, downed trees, redistribution of sediments, etc.). Upon identification of the habitats that experienced the most damage, storm impacts were then categorized as low-, moderate-, and severe-impacts based upon physical habitat damage and distance from eyewall path, height of storm surge, and maximum wind speed experienced during the hurricane. Quantification and monitoring of aboveground damage included measurements of indicators of defoliation (canopy coverage), mortality (recently felled trees and branches), plant community structure (tree diameter or height), and recovery (seedling percent coverage or density). Recovery of mangrove forest was assessed by subsequent visits to long-term monitoring plots in the six months following Hurricane Irma. Sedimentary impacts were also examined and included elevation change, shoreline erosion, and geochemical characterization of storm-derived sedimentary deposits.
Preliminary findings indicate a reduction in mangrove canopy cover from 70-90% pre-storm, to 30-50% post-Irma, and a reduction in tree height of approximately 1.2 m. Although signs of forest recovery and shows signs of slow regrowth, mangrove seedling density has significantly increased in the six months post-Irma. A sedimentary layer of fine carbonate mud up to 10-cm thick was imported into the mangroves of the lower Florida Keys, Biscayne Bay, and the Ten Thousand Islands. A siliciclastic mud layer up to 5-cm thick was observed in the marshes of Charlotte Harbor. All sites had imported tidal wrack consisting of a mixed seagrass and mangrove leaf litter, with some deposits as thick as 6 cm. In areas with newly opened canopy, a microbial layer was coating the surface of the imported wrack layer. Overwash and shoreline erosion were also documented at two sites in the lower Keys and Biscayne Bay and will be monitored for change and recovery over the next few years, pending subsequent funding. Due to changes in intensity along the storm path, direct comparisons of damage metrics can be made to environmental setting, wind speed, storm surge, and distance to eyewall. This information will help provide direct evidence of hurricane impact and recovery trajectories in coastal wetland ecosystems in Florida. The data will be shared with coastal ecosystem managers in order to enhance management and response planning for large natural disasters in Florida such as hurricanes.
Project partners included the U.S. Geological Survey, University of South Florida Saint Petersburg, Rutgers University, Nanyang Technical University, the University of Rhode Island, Tufts University, University of South Florida College of Marine Science, and the US National Park Service.
On January 11, on FIO’s new research vessel (R/V) the W. T.Hogarth, FWRI-HAB researchers assisted USF in deploying new infrastructure for oceanographic sensors and took advantage of this opportunity to test hand-held genetic sensors that can detect the red tide alga, Karenia brevis, in water samples collected while onboard. The genetic detection project, funded through a NOAA Prevention Control and Mitigation of HABs (PCMHAB) grant, utilizes a field-friendly approach that can provide genetic quantification of K. brevis in approximately one to three hours from the time of sample collection (see: http://fwcfieldnotes.com/2016/12/on-site-testing-for-red-tide-alga/). Samples collected just west of the Skyway Bridge and off of Pass-a-Grille (Pinellas County) were tested during this trip and provided our researchers with some of the lowest field concentrations of K. brevis observed with this technology to date: approximately 108 cells L-1 and 42 cells L-1, respectively. The limit of detection using our routine light microscopy procedure is 333 cells L-1, making this a very promising find for the development of this project!
Although this was intended to be a short-day trip, thick sea fog delayed both the departure and the return of the R/V W.T. Hogarth, with researchers spending an unanticipated night at sea. A short reprieve from foggy conditions allowed the port to reopen briefly early in the morning of the 12th, and sea fog continued to impact the area throughout that day. A subsequent trip completed the installation of USF’s oceanographic sensor system, and water current, meteorological, and wave data are now being reported every one to three hours (http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/).
The Coral Reef Evaluation and Monitoring Project (CREMP) is one of the longest running coral reef monitoring projects along the Florida Reef Tract- the world’s third largest barrier reef system. FWRI biologists visited Dry Tortugas National Park to monitor the condition of coral reef and hardbottom habitats.
Top photo: A field of bipinnate sea plumes (Antillogorgia bipinnata) behind a woody barrel sponge (Xestospongia muta).
By canoe, boat and airboat the threats assessment team (A.K.A. “The Bankfull Boyz”) are covering hundreds of river miles inventorying areas of habitat degradation on the Peace and Withlacoochee Rivers and major tributaries. Indicators of habitat degradation include:
active streambank erosion
riparian zone degradation
potential areas of non-point source pollution
We are following a rapid assessment methodology developed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Panama City Ecological Services Office and David Rosgen’s Watershed Assessment of River Stability and Sediment Supply (WARSSS).
The whole project really boils down to sediment and river stability. So, why are we so fed up with sediment? The United States Environmental Protection Agency ranks sediment as the leading cause of water quality impairment in streams and rivers. Stream channel instability and accelerated erosion can have severe biotic impacts on food chains, habitat complexity, spawning and rearing habitats, instream cover and temperatures.
The threats assessment project is a 3-year State Wildlife Grant funded study which is administered through FWC’s Florida’s Wildlife Legacy Initiative (FWLI). The project is match funded by FWC’s Aquatic Habitat Enhancement and Restoration Subsection (AHRE). The FWLI’s State Wildlife Action Plan listed the Peace and Withlacoochee as high ranking watersheds for habitat enhancement since they exhibit high potential for urban development, a high number of threats and a high number of Species of Greatest Conservation Need. The project is a joint venture with principal investigators within FWRI’s Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (Freshwater Plants Program) and the Division of Freshwater Fisheries Management, and collaborators including the USFWS and AHRE.
The Peace River (106 miles) flows south from its headwaters in Green Swamp to Charlotte Harbor, Florida’s second largest open water estuary. The Peace River Watershed has experienced high levels of habitat degradation due to urbanization, agriculture, phosphate mining and altered flow regimes. While water quality in Charlotte Harbor is generally considered “good,” the Southwest Florida Water Management District expressed concern regarding reduced streamflow in the Peace River and areas within the river where water quality ranked “fair” or “poor.” The threats assessment team has located, scored and inventoried an alarming 353 impairment sites on the Peace River and major tributaries, to date. The highest concentration of impairment sites is located in the river corridor between Zolfo Springs and Gardner. Most impairment sites appear to be a result of poor cattle grazing practices. In part, we theorize that the uprooting of countless trees by Hurricane Charley in 2004, in combination with cattle grazing, led to deterioration of the riparian zone and high channel instability.
The Withlacoochee River (141 miles) originates in the Green Swamp and flows northwest through a diverse range of habitats to Withlacoochee Bay before flowing into the Gulf of Mexico. High urban development, pollution and altered flow regimes pose several threats to water quality within the watershed. Although the Withlacoochee River Watershed has been significantly altered through the construction of the Lake Rousseau Dam in 1909 and the Cross-Florida Barge Canal in the 1930’s, we have identified very few impairment sites (24 sites to date). This is largely due to the river and tributaries having an intact and vigorous riparian plant community, and there is little agriculture within the river’s riparian habitat. Another reason we are finding few impairment sites in the Withlacoochee River is because it was dammed. As a result, water levels were stabilized, which decreases stream power and shear stress, which in turn can decreases streambank erosion. So, while finding few impairment sites sounds like a positive thing, it’s a double-edged sword. The Withlacoochee River does not function like a free-flowing river and like the major issue with all reservoirs, we alter the natural flow regime of the system. Consequently, it’s common for rivers to be over widened above the dam due to backwatering and increased sediment, while being deeper and narrower below the dam since they are sediment starved (commonly called “Hungry Water”).
The overall goal of the project is to develop a prioritized list of restoration projects for each watershed. Preliminary recommendations for proposed restoration actions include a passive approach of fencing out cattle from rivers and riparian habitat, and allowing degraded areas to naturally restore. In more highly disturbed areas, an active restoration approach would be required including re-grading high slope or mass wasting banks, creating a bankfull floodplain bench and re-vegetation of banks to prevent further erosion. In a worst-case scenario (i.e. highly degraded and incised stream with no connection to its floodplain), a new channel could be excavated at a higher elevation with bankfull benches and floodplain connectivity.
Photo Caption: Female in early developing oocyte with cortical alveoli. It is indicative of the transition from immature to mature in the
By Catalina Brown
The FWH group’s research project, Monitoring Offshore Reef Fish Populations, includes a comprehensive gonad staging section. Gonad staging is incorporated along with a series of other organosomatic indices which will then be applied to increase knowledge of the overall health status of specific fish species. Organosomatic indices in fish can be modified by environmental stressors, nutrition, reproduction and age. Our objective is to assess reproductive maturation, distinguish groups between males, females and transitional hermaphrodites and eventually compare health indices between fish in the same phase of reproductive maturation to identify implications of life history.
We assigned two distinct phases for males: developing/regenerating and spawning capable. Females are multifaceted, and undergo several phases of maturation. Therefore, females are categorized as immature or mature, and mature females can be further divided into three distinct sub-phases: developing, spawning capable or regressing. These phases are based on morphological changes that occur through development. Health indices of fish that are of the same sex and reproductive phase will be compared to determine if individuals at each stage are allotting a comparable proportion of energy towards reproduction.
The relationship between Organosomatic indices and gonad developmental phases will eventually provide a clear correlation between life history and overall fish health.
The internal newsletter of the FWC Fish and Wildlife Research Institute