Tag Archives: featured

Research Spotlight

FWRI Catalogs the Hutton Collection

By Paul Larson

In the early 1960s, Robert F. Hutton (1921-1994) and Franklin Sogandares-Bernal (1931-2016) published a series of papers on parasites from a wide variety of animals collected around Florida. From 1955 to 1962, Dr. Hutton was the head biologist and parasitologist for FWRI (then called the Florida State Board of Conservation Marine Laboratory) and from 1957-1958 Dr. Sogandares-Bernal worked with him as a marine parasitologist.

The host animals include various species of worms, oysters, birds, fish, crabs, shrimp, and mammals, while their parasites included nematodes, flatworms, arthropods, and even some non-animal groups like fungi and single-celled eukaryotes. While the disposition of the host animals is unknown, roughly 1100 prepared microscope slides of the parasites survived, having been in storage in the Florida Biodiversity Collections here at FWRI. Until now, these slides have been uncataloged, unsearchable, and completely invisible to the research community.

New labels are printed and pasted to the bottom of the slide. Old labels will be photographed because they contain additional markings and numbers that can’t be unambiguously placed into database fields.

With the help of volunteer Brooke Longval, who has spent hours examining the available data, correcting obvious errors, and formatting them for ingestion into the database, we have selected 667 slides with the highest quality data to be cataloged, labeled, and digitized. We prioritized specimens where the host species was recorded, the parasite was identified, and collecting locality information was preserved. Many of the remaining uncataloged slides are only missing one of these components and thus still have strong potential as research or reference material.

The next steps are in-progress and they include using archival glues and papers to attach new labels to the slides, photograph the slides to preserve original hand-written label data (which are deteriorating over time due to suboptimal materials), and to select representatives of the specimens themselves to be captured in photomicrographs that will be available online and associated with specimen records in the database. All newly assigned catalog numbers all start with the collection code FSBC, which identifies the collection to which they belong, and hearkens back to the earlier days of the agency when It was called the Florida State Board of Conservation.

A tray of slides with original labels. The cormorant host was collected right outside FWRI.

With so many parasites identified to genus and species by an expert in the field (Dr. Hutton has described many new species of parasite) these slides are a valuable reference source and a tool for investigating novel research questions. The host-parasite relationship is illustrative of the fact that specimens are much more than simply a time-and-place record for one species. Specimens contain a trove of ecological and environmental data that can be accessed for as long as the specimen exists, including the parasite load at the time of collection. Sometimes the parasites are obvious, as in the case of Bopyrid isopods under a crab carapace, but in the case of an Apicomplexan from the gut of a pink shrimp, one must dig a little deeper to find it.

Communications Corner

On Location

FWRI’s Communications staff has been busy in the field this last quarter, shooting video for a variety of research projects across the state. As many of you know, we produce our videos in-house with footage we shoot, both with 4k digital film cameras and DSLR still cameras. Keep an eye out for a video documenting Kevin Enge’s mark-recapture study of the Florida scrub lizard, which translocated scrub lizards from Seabranch Preserve State Park in Martin County to Hypoluxo Scrub Natural Area in Palm Beach County.

We also recently completed filming at Ft. De Soto Park in Tampa Bay for Fisheries Independent Monitoring’s new training video. This was a large shoot, incorporating underwater GoPro footage as well as overhead drone footage to capture best training practices for setting a variety of different gears.

At the Research Institute, a shark ID workshop, led by Brent Winner, was also documented with photos and video.

The Communications staff extends a generous thank you to all FWC staff that assisted, explained, and generally put up with us and our cameras during field work. If you think you might have an idea for a video for your section, please let Communications know!

Carol Davis shooting video in Tampa Bay for FIM’s new training video.

Staff Spotlight

Dillon Day, FWRI’s new Safety Program Manager, donated some of his time this month to introduce himself. Thank you, Dillon, and welcome to FWC!

What are your degrees in?

  • (May 2014) B.S. Public Health, University of South Florida
  • (April 2017) MPH Environmental and Occupational Health, Florida International University

What has your professional experience been like?

  • I’ve volunteered with the department of health in both Dade and Manatee County. I conducted HIV testing and outreach in Dade County. While in Manatee county, I compiled many different environmental health assessments in different areas such as Migrant Housing, Public Swimming Facilities, Biomedical Waste, and Septic Installations.  I was previously employed as a Safety officer with Beall’s Retail Distribution. I was tasked with keeping the facility in compliance with OSHA and other regulatory agencies as well as handling Workers Compensation claims.

What are you working on now?

  • Many projects are currently underway. We are working on cleaning the 3rd floor cold room in the JU Building of FWRI-St. Pete, as well as adding some handrails to ramps in the F-Building and RMI Building in FWRI-St. Pete. One of my largest undertakings thus far is getting the facilities prepared for hurricane season.

How is this information beneficial?

  • Every project that I commence has the same basis, “How can I make FWRI safer for colleagues, guests, and the general public.” I love finding solutions and creating policies that help create a safer environment for everyone.

What is your typical work day like?

  • There is no typical day in the Safety field. This is a very dynamic position that keeps me on my toes. Some days I could be sitting at my desk writing policies and researching regulatory compliance. Other days I am conducting hazard assessments and environmental and occupational health testing’s around the facility.

What is your greatest career accomplishment?

  • I am still relatively new to this career and still gaining valuable experience. Nevertheless, my greatest accomplishment thus far was to help my previous facility reach a milestone of over 3.2 million hours worked without a lost-time accident.

What are some of your biggest challenges?

  • The largest challenge to most safety professionals is employee complacency. Employees can get used to their daily routine and not be as open to change.  I have used this to guide my policies and programs to be as beneficial, adaptable, and easy to understand as possible for all employees. 

What do you like most about your career?

  • I love the daily challenge of not knowing what to expect. Every day is different, and you must remain dynamic. I love helping my fellow colleagues get home to their families every night. My goal is for everyone to get home in the same, if not better, condition that they arrived in.

Was this your original career interest? Why or why not?

  • I have always wanted to help people, so the safety field was a good way to go. My college course pushed me into this field and I decided to run with it! I have enjoyed every second of it so far!

What would you be doing if you weren’t involved in science?

  • I always thought I would make a good fishing boat captain or fire-fighter. Those were some of my childhood dream jobs, so if I wasn’t in the safety field I would most likely be out on a boat!

What advice would you give someone interested in pursuing a career in your field?

  • Continually educate yourself. The safety field changes all the time with new regulatory requirements. They only way to stay abreast of new situations is to continually educate yourself through classes and professional certifications.

What do you enjoy doing in your free time?

  • I am a very outdoorsy person. I like to hit the beach, go kayaking, and boating whenever I am given the opportunity. I like to try hole in the wall restaurants and explore different cuisines with my fabulous girlfriend, soon to be fiancé (don’t let her know!). I also spend a lot of time playing and taking care of our 1-year old Labradoodle, Daisy!

Director Message

The Case for Science Within Government

By Gil McRae, FWRI Director

“Knowledge is in every country the surest basis of public happiness…”
– George Washington, Inaugural State of the Union Address, January 8, 1790

Following the American Revolution, the founding fathers faced the daunting task of setting up a government.  The war, which had for all intents and purposes ended with the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown in 1781, was not officially over until the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783.  At that time, the US was still a loose confederation of states with little to no central authority.  Nothing got done without the agreement of a majority (or in some cases the entirety) of the thirteen states.  That remained the situation until the US Constitution was ratified by a majority of the states.  The Constitution, which became effective in 1789, established the president as chief executive and one of the requirements was that the president shall “…from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union…”, which brings us to the above quote by George Washington.  The quote is from his (and our) inaugural state of the union address which was read to congress in New York City, the capital at that time.  Washington D.C. did not yet exist, and the area was literally a swamp. 

The fact that the first president of this new country would take the time to highlight the importance of an educated citizenry (unfortunately at the time, only white men) is very telling.  Among the various powers the Constitution assigned to Congress is the “promotion of science and the useful arts”.  The founders of our country realized that the idea of the United States was more important than the mechanics of government and that our fundamental principles – government based on consent of the governed, individual rights, freedom of speech and no state sponsorship of religion – needed to be widely taught for our system of government to endure.  Because the concept of the United States was not yet widely accepted the big concern was how to promote national awareness.  Along those lines, Washington and many other early leaders were extremely interested in establishing a national university.  Washington, who was the nation’s wealthiest president excluding (perhaps) the incumbent even provided for the national university in his will.  The idea of a national university did not pan out, mainly because the states developed their own universities to complement those that existed prior to independence.

In challenging times our nation has repeatedly turned to science to inform policy, although the pathway has not always been quick or straightforward.  The National Academy of Sciences was established by Abraham Lincoln in March 1863 in the midst of the Civil War.  Earlier that year, Lincoln had introduced the Emancipation Proclamation freeing slaves in states that had seceded from the union.  One of the first tasks assigned to the newly established Academy was to figure out a way to stabilize compasses aboard the newly deployed ironclad ships, whose iron hulls interfered with the navigational tools.

In Florida with the establishment of the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission as a constitutional agency, the inherent value of science within government is recognized.  Although the word science does not appear in Florida’s Constitution, the word research occurs 3 times: 1) in establishing the mission of the state university system, 2) in exemptions associated with the net limitation amendment, and 3) in defining the mission of FWC.  The three pillars of the FWC mission:  management, research and law enforcement are enshrined in perpetuity in the constitution.

Our FWC mission as laid out in the constitution seems straightforward and laudable but there are some realities relative to science that are not often understood.  While our Commission has a proven track record of basing natural resource decisions on sound science, they are not required to follow that approach.  Technically, our Commission is bound only by something known as the “rational basis test” which simply means that they must act rationally related to a “legitimate government interest”.  Former supreme court justice Thurgood Marshall once said, “The constitution does not prohibit legislatures from enacting stupid laws”.  The same could be said for our state constitution and our Commission.  While we can all be proud of the scientific legacy we have built over more than six decades at the Institute (and the fact that our Commission has been committed to science-based management) it is important to realize that does not necessarily have to be the case.  The facts will usually win out, but it can take a very long time for that to happen – consider our ongoing struggles with racial and gender equality.

While it has taken a while to get there, policymakers are beginning to reach out to scientists on the biggest environmental challenge of our time, anthropogenic climate change.  The conditions that result in a warming and less stable climate and the acidification of our oceans have been with us for decades and the rate of accumulation of green house gases in our atmosphere is accelerating.  Florida’s fish and wildlife are and will continue to be impacted by climate change.  Governor DeSantis has introduced bold policy initiatives related to water quality and has hired the state’s first ever Chief Science Officer within DEP, Dr. Tom Frazer who is a longtime FWC partner and a great choice for the position.  As of this writing, the state is advertising for a Chief Resilience Officer to coordinate Florida’s preparations for “environmental, physical and economic impacts of climate change, especially sea level rise”.  While much more needs to be done at the national and international level to combat climate change, these are positive and encouraging steps at the state level.

Policies are not always required to be based on science, but the enduring ones almost always are.  It is our continuing challenge to build on our foundation of success and to be prepared as new opportunities arise.

Director Message

Thanks for Stepping Up

By Gil McRae, FWRI Director

Remember the days when your workload was predictable, and you could plan and dictate when tasks were tackled and completed?  Well, neither do I.  One fact of life for us as public employees is that we are expected to be flexible and adaptable, and often we are the first (or only) responders associated with potentially damaging environmental events.  In most cases we cannot plan or budget for the rare events like fish and wildlife disease or die-off events, and the occurrence of large scale environmental problems can be a real challenge relative to prioritizing staff time and resource allocation.  Often additional workload is created when we return to postponed or rescheduled activities.  Despite these challenges, FWC and FWRI staff have always risen to the occasion in response to unforeseen environmental events, and I never cease to be amazed at your resolve, commitment and creativity in dealing with these issues.

This year has been particularly challenging with the red tide that affected a large portion of the state.  This red tide, which is still lingering today, has impacted tourism, killed millions of fish and hundreds of sea turtles, manatees and dolphins. The event also created tremendous demand on our staff for a very prolonged period.  Our Harmful Algal Bloom Group lead the way continually adjusting to unpredictable and seemingly endless streams of water samples coming into our St. Pete headquarters for analysis.  To date, over 14,000 water samples have been examined tied to this event.  The HAB group also developed innovative approaches to monitoring and communicating results including aerial surveys with the assistance of FWC Law Enforcement and a near-real time interactive sample reporting tool developed with the invaluable assistance of our communications and GIS specialists.  Our fish health team monitored the fish kill hotline and fielded a record number of calls, responded to countless inquiries and provided data and information in a timely manner.  Our manatee folks, particularly those in the Southwest region, worked long hours under very demanding conditions to respond to an overwhelming number of manatee carcasses and the occasional rescue while assisting partners in responding to dolphin strandings.  Our sea turtle team also distinguished themselves by responding to and documenting a record number of sea turtle mortalities associated with this event.  Our fisheries team spun up specific monitoring programs to assess the effects of red tide on our fisheries, generating data that will be critically important in defining the short and long-term effects of the event. Through it all, our administrative support team managed logistics and budget that form the foundation of an effective response and your leadership team was there every time I needed support.

I have often said that FWRI staff are at their best when the challenges seem insurmountable.  I can’t tell you the number of times that I have been contacted by representatives from other agencies praising our response capability, professionalism, and quality of the work you all do associated with unforeseen events.  It is not lost on me that the time demands, and stress associated with this work and the lost time with family and friends takes a toll.  I trust that you all take comfort in the fact that you have leadership that understands and supports you and is willing to do what it takes to make us collectively successful.  Although I join each of you in keeping my fingers crossed that these events do not become routine, I take a great deal of comfort in knowing that whatever comes our way we have demonstrated the ability to rise to the challenge.

Research Spotlight

Fish Communities Associated with Hard Bottom Habitats in Tampa Bay; What Lives in These Recently Mapped Areas?

By Kerry Flaherty-Walia et al

Hard bottom habitats such as corals, sponges, limestone ledges and artificial reefs are known to support diverse fish communities in offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico. Less is known about inshore hard bottom habitats in Tampa Bay. Our study, funded by the Tampa Bay Environmental Restoration Fund (TBERF), was designed to answer research questions about (1) the distribution of hard bottom habitats in Tampa Bay, (2) the fish species that are using these habitats, (3) the temporal and spatial use of these habitats by fish and finally (4) how fish use these hard bottom habitats in comparison to other habitats within Tampa Bay.

A baited remote underwater video setup deployed at a natural hard bottom site in Tampa Bay.

Using baited remote underwater video (BRUV) surveys and timed-drop hook-and-line sampling, data were collected on species composition and abundance for natural and artificial hard bottom habitats within Tampa Bay. Species that have not been or are rarely collected in fisheries-independent monitoring efforts within Tampa Bay have been documented. Information on hard bottom habitat use was collected for a variety of economically important species, including reef fish that are not typically considered estuarine dependent (i.e., red grouper). These results suggest that Tampa Bay hard bottom habitats function as an extension of nearshore coastal hard bottom, attracting species not normally seen within the estuary. In addition, these habitats probably serve as a nursery for emigrating estuarine-dependent reef fish as they move to shallow nearshore reefs farther offshore (e.g., gag, gray snapper). Hooked gear sampling yielded accurate lengths on many of these key estuarine dependent reef fish species and provided data on species that are commonly captured by the recreational fishery.

A bonnethead shark caught in Tampa Bay during the survey.

The grant-funded portion of this study was scheduled to end in 2018, but in response to the severe red tide bloom that occurred during the study period, an additional year of sampling will be conducted to observe any potential changes in these estuarine hard bottom fish assemblages. This ongoing research will help resource managers prioritize habitat conservation and artificial reef enhancement throughout Tampa Bay and surrounding waters and could easily be a model for other estuarine systems along the Florida coast. For more information email Kerry.Flaherty-Walia@MyFWC.com.

A gag grouper caught during the survey.

Staff Spotlight

Célia Villac, Research Scientist with the Harmful Algal Bloom Group volunteered some of her time this month to explain her work at FWRI and beyond.

What are your degrees in?

(1983) B.S. Oceanography, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

(1996) Ph.D. Oceanography, Texas A&M University

(1991) M.S. Geography, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

What has your professional experience been like?

Interesting, challenging, rewarding, fun…are words that come to mind. For the past 30+ years, since my undergraduate days, I have dedicated my time to studying marine phytoplankton diversity and ecology. Research opportunities have allowed me to investigate the phytoplankton of many different regions, from tropical seas to high latitude temperate waters. Phytoplankton from polar regions, however, I have seen only through samples taken by others and cultures. I have never been to the Artic/Antarctic Oceans, but I have “sailed” their waters through my microscope!

What is your typical work day like?

I am interested in species-oriented processes, a fancy way to say I am a taxonomist interested in phytoplankton space-time distributions and their environmental controlling factors. Using light and electron microscopes are part of my daily routine due to my focus on identification based on morphology. The analysis of large data sets may also be part of my day (hours at the computer) since a single field sample may have dozens of species and we need dozens, hundreds of samples to understand phytoplankton patterns in an ever-dynamic ocean. I am part of the support team that issues daily and weekly Red Tide Status reports. I also invest time in meetings and conference calls because the results based on morphology and community structure is one piece of the puzzle that fits in a much broader scenario in which other researchers contribute with information that span from ocean circulation to the molecular make-up of the species of interest, as well as their physiology and life cycle strategies.

What are you working on now or recently?

We have had an intense Red Tide season (still ongoing) so I have been deeply involved with Karenia brevis monitoring and event-response for the past few months. Since the season started in November 2017, we from the microscopy lab have analyzed about 14,000 samples taken from all over the coast of Florida. In cooperation with colleagues in our HAB group, I am currently working on a book chapter about the biogeography of Karenia blooms and I am also involved in projects that aim to unravel the diversity of another HAB species very common in our waters, the diatoms in the genus Pseudo-nitzschia (https://myfwc.com/media/12495/pseudo-nitzschia.pdf).

How is this information beneficial?

Understanding the phytoplankton population dynamics of a given region may become a powerful predictive tool, a key component in HAB-event response. The correct identification of a species of interest is central to the problem.

What is your greatest career accomplishment?

This is a hard one to answer so maybe you should ask Mom and Dad – in their eyes, I have solved all the major problems of the world’s oceans! If I have instilled lasting interest for phytoplankton in a former (or current) student, I would consider that to be my greatest career accomplishment.

What are some of your biggest challenges?

On the daily activities front, time management to strike a balance between monitoring and research goals and demands. On the overarching science front, keeping up with the quick and ever evolving taxonomy of microalgae.

What do you like most about your career?

I think there are two components. For one, I really enjoy phytoplankton taxonomy and ecology. Not only the organisms are beautiful and thus fun to look at but the dynamics of phytoplankton, either in the real world or in a laboratory flask, is fascinating. This world, invisible to the naked eye, has critters that can switch between being auto- to heterotrophs, that can perform long vertical migrations despite minute size, that can exude a chemical potent enough to kill a large mammal. Amazing! The second component is that research and teaching, at least in my book, mean relating to people, cooperating, exchanging ideas, constant learning – these experiences are what bring meaning to what I do from day to day.

Was this your original career interest? Why or why not?

A big YES here. I learned to love and respect the sea as a child. I decided I wanted to work with marine biology during my senior year as an exchange student at Bexley Highschool, Columbus, Ohio. My undergraduate final research project was on Marine Phytoplankton and I’ve stuck with it ever since. Moreover, I already knew I wanted to combine research and teaching/mentoring into my routine way back during my undergraduate years. No doubts; no regrets.

What advice would you give to someone interested in pursuing a career in your field?

My advice will have to be taken with a grain of salt because I am one of those few individuals who live in a special bubble: I have the privilege of making a living doing something I love. To a young scientist, I would say: Make sure to follow your passion and be aware that changing your mind and realigning expectations may be part of the process. The process is actually way more important than the product. Be open to work with others, to learn from others. And, of course, exercise and drink water.

What do you enjoy doing in your free time?

I enjoy going to the movies, cooking, reading, exercising (hiking, yoga, running, swimming, snowshoeing when in Michigan – all in moderation), and skyping with my family in Brazil. I like to strike a balance between staying quietly at home and socializing with friends and family. When a chunk of time is available, travelling is also on my list.

Director Message

Putting Red Tide in Context

By Gil McRae, FWRI Director

“The Florida red tide was caused by the appearance in nearby coastal waters of extraordinary numbers of a microscopic sea creature.  Although individually so small as to be invisible to the human eye, the concentration of billions of Gymnodinium caused the sea water to take on a reddish or amber color…. Mass destruction of fish and certain other aquatic animals which was caused by a deadly toxin, the chemical composition of which is still unknown, which Gymnodinium liberated into the water…”

While this statement may seem to refer to the ongoing red tide that has impacted a large segment of Florida’s Coast this year, it was excerpted from a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service report completed in December 1947.  The report on a study directed by the Service’s chief shellfish biologist, Dr. Paul S. Galtsoff, outlined the circumstances associated with a particularly severe red tide that began in November 1946 and persisted for 11 months causing massive fish kills and widespread respiratory irritation for beachgoers.  The report also took great pains to debunk a commonly held theory at the time that the red tide was caused by munitions dumped into coastal waters at the end of World War II.

While our understanding of red tides has advanced tremendously since 1946, challenges with predicting the formation, severity and duration of the blooms remain.  The red tide organism, first identified definitively in 1948 and now known by the scientific name Karenia brevis after the accomplished state of Florida scientist (and former Institute Director) Dr. Karen Steidinger, can produce a dozen or more types of toxins.  Cutting edge work done by our colleagues from the USF College of Marine Science and Mote Marine Laboratory using satellite monitoring, oceanographic modelling and autonomous underwater gliders have bolstered the theory that red tides begin offshore in the Gulf of Mexico.  This comports well with the observations of Dr. Galtsoff that the first indications of a red tide in 1946 were reported by fishermen who observed large fish kills 10-14 miles offshore in November of that year.

While the first scientifically documented red tide occurred in the Florida panhandle in 1844, they have undoubtedly been a feature of Florida’s coasts for centuries.  In the 16th century Spanish conquistadors documented oral histories from the Calusa native culture that speak of widespread fish kills and discolored water.  More recent observations indicate that some level of red tide occurs nearly every year off Southwest Florida.  The specific combination of circumstances that cause red tide remains elusive to scientists but the emerging consensus is that a combination of east winds and southwesterly currents in the Gulf of Mexico create upwelling conditions that provide nutrients and bring red tide cells from the bottom to the surface.  Once established, the red tide organism is tremendously versatile at using nutrients from a variety of sources, including those released by decaying fish killed by the bloom.  There is increasing evidence that another marine algal species, known as Trichodesmium, which is adept at turning atmospheric nitrogen into a nutrient form that Karenia brevis can use, plays a significant role in the maintenance and growth of red tides.  In turn, Trichodesmium can be nourished by iron which enters the Gulf of Mexico in dust storms from the Saharan desert which is approximately as large as the continental United States.  Each year over one hundred million tons of Saharan dust is blown across the Atlantic Ocean in spring, summer and fall.  In June of 2018, NASA satellites documented a massive cloud of dust from Africa moving westward across the Atlantic Ocean which was said to be largest observed in 15 years.

The offshore origin of red tides, and the likelihood that red tide blooms initiate hundreds of feet below the ocean surface, make it extremely difficult to detect red tide blooms in the early stages.  However, during the current red tide the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission and the USF College of Marine Science have used data from autonomous gliders to target water sampling at depth which has confirmed the presence of the red tide organism.  Much like meteorologists have done for hurricanes, this work and related modelling and monitoring activities will lead to more accurate forecasting for future red tides.

Many of our FWRI colleagues, especially those in the harmful algal bloom, fish health, fisheries, marine turtles and manatee groups, have been working exceptionally hard responding to this event.  We have thrown everything we have at it.  Weary but committed staff continue to work in labs, on beaches, in trucks, boats and planes collecting important information that will improve our understanding of red tides and prepare us for future blooms.  I am extremely proud of the work they have done responding to this event – working long hours often in very difficult conditions.  They have handled contentious interactions with the public and local governments with professionalism and courtesy.  Most importantly, they have prioritized safety and the integrity of the data and information collected.

Red tide has been with us for centuries and will be with us in the future.  The red tide organism is particularly adept at using any nutrients that may be available.  In the current red tide we have documented highly concentrated blooms in many areas with little to no man-made nutrient pollution.  However, when red tides move inshore they can use nutrients that are more abundant in our estuaries, including those that may stem from agricultural, domestic, municipal or stormwater sources.  These man-made nutrients do not cause red tides but may contribute to their persistence inshore.  It is important to note that, even in the absence of a connection to red tide, there are numerous reasons to manage the input of excess nutrients into our coastal waters which can be detrimental to seagrass meadows and the fisheries they support.

The site and stench of millions of dead fish on our beaches is disturbing and disconcerting but it is an experience we share with Floridians of 1946, when the state’s population was about a tenth of what it is today, and the native cultures that occupied our region for thousands of years.  Our world-class fisheries have evolved and adapted to red tides and have shown tremendous resilience after previous severe events.  There are situations, such as residential canals and waters near aquaculture operations, where treatment and control of red tides may be feasible.  This is an active area of testing led by scientists at Mote Marine Laboratory and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute involving clays, ozone and other techniques.

While the factors influencing red tide formation and severity are complex and large scale, our science is at a tipping point aided by state of the art technology that will result in improved forecasting abilities to inform Floridians and visitors to our state.  Red tide blooms will persist, but we have an awesome team and we will be ready.

Staff Spotlight

Paul Larson from IS&M, Research Information Services, volunteered some of his time to sit down with us this month and explain some of his work at FWRI and beyond.

What are your degrees/certifications?

A BS from the University of Minnesota and a PhD from Ohio State University. My PhD was in invertebrate evolution (molecular phylogenetics), systematics and taxonomy. My dissertation was on the evolution of various reproductive strategies in brooding sea anemones, and treated several taxonomic issues in that group.

What kinds of professional experience do you have?

I worked as a NOAA Groundfish Observer, a drinking water microbiology analyst at Analytica Alaska, and had a post-doctoral project modeling species distribution of freshwater fishes.

What are you working on now?

I have several ongoing projects: On the research end, I’m working to put together a dichotomous key to sea anemones found in and around Florida. This is a long-term project and only progresses when I find time here and there. I try to collaborate with other groups whenever and however I can, and in the near future I’ll be working with the corals group on surveys of hard-bottom communities in the Gulf. On the curation end, I’ve been working toward setting up the specimen database for migration to a new system designed specifically for biological collections and working through the historical backlog of collected specimens that have not been identified or cataloged. I am also collaborating with 3-D digitizing experts at the USF Digital Heritage & Humanities Collections to produce some digital specimens as a pilot, or proof-of-concept experiment (These will be on the new FWRI website when it finally goes live, but can be seen at this link now https://sketchfab.com/USF_digital/collections/biological-specimens).

How is this information beneficial? 

Specimens are much more than just a record for a species’ occurrence in a time and place. Inside their guts, their cells, and their molecules, they contain biological, geological and chemical data about the environment they lived in. As new analytical technologies develop, specimens become even more valuable sources of data that, otherwise, would require a time machine to collect. The projects I’m working on seek to maximize the value of the specimen collections by making them and their associated data available as broadly and easily as possible.

A queen conch specimen from the collection. SIS has wet-preserved specimens which retain the soft tissues of the animal and dried specimens like this one for loan.

What is your typical work day like?

My days are extremely variable. Some days I spend all day on the computer writing, or working in the database, or dealing with administrative stuff. Other days I might be on the microscope identifying specimens, or in the field collecting. On the best days I do a little of everything, which might include giving a tour, corresponding with colleagues, and working with specimens.

What is your greatest career accomplishment?

I am probably most proud of my research products (i.e., publications) because all the reams of data and hours of analysis are pointless without distilling it into little discrete increments of knowledge that can be used by others.

Honestly, though, in today’s research/job climate, just having an advanced degree and then finding a job that actually uses that degree is an accomplishment to be proud of in itself.

What are some of your biggest challenges?

One challenge is getting voucher specimens from ongoing FWRI research projects. Florida Statute 1004.56 states that it’s the ‘duty’ of state agencies to deposit vouchers from regular research and monitoring activities. Through our Memorandum of Understanding with FLMNH, the collections here at FWRI can indefinitely maintain and curate specimens resulting from FWRI research efforts. If your research results in dead fish or invertebrates, it should result in at least some specimens.

In order to keep them suitable for genetic studies, recently collected specimens like this Calappa tortugae are not being fixed in formalin and are having tissue sub-samples preserved in 95% ethanol and frozen at -80C.

What do you like most about your career?

I love learning new things – the weirder and more bizarre, the better. When your work is based in biodiversity, there are frequent opportunities to have your mind blown by creatures, behaviors, and associations that are wilder than you could have ever expected.

Was this your original career interest? 

I have wanted to be a scientist since 4th or 5th grade, and a biologist high school. Curating a natural history collection was something that only started to interest me in graduate school when I worked in museums and did research using specimens.

What would you be doing if you weren’t involved in science? 

If I wasn’t in science I’d probably want to work in the movie industry doing special effects work (practical, not CGI), especially gross makeup or horror gags.

The corkscrew anemone is an important member of reef communities because it frequently hosts cleaning organisms like Pederson shrimp.

What advice would you give someone interested in pursuing a career in your field?

If you are interested in marine science, the science has to come first. Lots of people like the idea of working in and around the sea, but graduate advisors look for people with questions, ideas, and the ability to test them.  Get as much research experience as you can as an undergraduate – no matter what field. My undergraduate research was in entomology, but the skills I learned could be used on sea anemones, whales, or sea grasses. If you want to be a curator or natural history collections in particular, that is a mostly a matter of luck and waiting because those jobs are very few.

What do you enjoy doing in your free time?

I do a bad job playing guitar, a good job playing with my kids, and I like to try to build things that make me learn new skills in my garage.

Research Spotlight

Red Tide Event Response

The red tide blooms in Florida this year have gained not only a full response from local and state resources, but a national spotlight from news media across the country. As of this writing, there are three separate blooms affecting the Panhandle, Southwest Florida, and the Atlantic Coast. Over 10,000 water samples later, FWRI and FWC continues to respond to one of the most severe and widespread blooms of Karenia brevis in recent years.

FWRI’s new red tide map updates daily, automatically populating the interactive map with red tide data from the last 8 days of sampling. Our new map has been well received by the public and provides valuable data on a more immediate basis than our previous twice-weekly reports. This change illustrates FWRI’s commitment to providing the public with accurate, scientifically-verified data, and responding to public comment and criticism.

FWC field staff transporting a large adult female manatee rescued for red tide to rescue partner, Clearwater Marine Aquarium, who then transported the manatee to SeaWorld for rehabilitation.

FWRI’s Marine Mammal Stranding unit continues to be a crucial component for manatee rescue during these severe red tide blooms. Once a citizen calls in a stranded or distressed manatee to the Wildlife Alert Hotline, Marine Mammal Stranding responds to the incident and, depending on the location in the state, the manatee is then transferred to rehabilitation facilities. Manatees have had heavy losses related to red tide this year – at last count 182 manatees – but the number would be higher if not for the diligent efforts of the Marine Mammal Stranding team.

The Fish Kill Hotline continues to be a successful program, with concerned citizens reporting over 1,300 individual fish kills in Southwest Florida alone. Floridians across the state have assisted FWC in the monitoring – and in many cases assisting fish kill clean-up – of the red tide blooms with the Red Tide Offshore Monitoring Program.

Red tide response from FWRI extends to many levels of the organization, including Communications. In addition to answering inquiries from the public and press, Communications creates products such as infographics, press releases, newsletters, videos and more.

In addition to water sampling, FWC conducted flyovers with Law Enforcement aircraft Panther 1 in 5, 7 and 10 mile surveys along Pasco, Pinellas, Manatee and Sarasota counties on September 9th, 2018. These observations provided visual confirmation of blooms and provided researchers with visual data on fish kills, manatee mortalities and more. Observations from the 10 mile survey estimated that the bloom extended at least 15 miles offshore in some areas.

FWC’s research scientists conduct aerial surveys as part of red ride response.

Data is also gleaned from the Copernicus satellite program, which observes chlorophyll concentrations in surface waters. Satellite observations are not infallible, however, as cloud cover obscures observation capabilities.

Combining satellite and aircraft observations with extensive water-sampling data can begin to paint an accurate picture of the dynamic red tide blooms. Moore’s law shows us that technology is constantly improving, and so we hope to see increased precision in monitoring capabilities as time progresses. FWC hope to continue to embrace current and emerging technology to help better track, monitor and mitigate red tide blooms in Florida.